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Showing posts from September, 2010

Greenbottle (Lucilla caesar)

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Greenbottle (Lucilla caesar)
Originally uploaded by Peter Orchard So flies are not everyone's favourite creatures but, even if you despise them, just take a moment to have a close look at the 'Greenbottle'. The shiny metallic green colouring is, in my view at least, amazing. You can even see my reflection in this one as I creep up on it to take its photo! Look at those amazing big brown eyes too, nearly 10% of this insects body are eyes.

The Greenbottle rarely comes in to our houses and I confess that it is not the most tasteful of insects. Frequently seen on dung of all kinds, especially dog's, and then seen on Blackberries. Do you like to pick the odd blackberry to eat as you stroll along a country path? It lays its eggs in carrion and the larvae are a key part of the recycling process.

There are various similar species but, as far as I can tell, this is the commonest, Lucilla caesar.

Hedge Bindweed (Calystegia sepium)

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Hedge Bindweed (Calystegia sepium)
Originally uploaded by Peter Orchard One of the last remnants of colour left in our hedgerows (apart from red berries of course) is the brilliant white of the trumpet flowers of Hedge Bindweed.

Whilst dreaded in gardens, in its place, interwoven amongst brambles of other hedging plants the Hedge Bindweed has the most glorious of flowers and often, if you peek inside, there will be an insect of some sort feeding on the nectar.

This is a very common plant throughout the country, not just here in Dorset, and is easy to tell from its cousins, the Field Bindweed which tends to creep along the ground and the Sea Bindweed which is, as its name implies, found in coastal locations because they tend to be pink in colour with white stripes.

Dark Bush Cricket (Pholidoptera griseoaptera)

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Dark Bush Cricket (Pholidoptera griseoaptera)
Originally uploaded by Peter Orchard This insect is easy to identify as it is our only all brown bush-cricket. The other brown bush-crickets we have in this country have some white and green on them, are much smaller, are far less common and tend to be found in specialist habitats where the 'dark' does not occur.

That said, the colouring can vary from a chestnut colour to almost black, the female usually paler than the male although this female I photographed is pretty dark in colour.

This insect can be found in any rough vegetation such as hedgerows, woodland scrub, roadside verges and quite often in garden shrubberies.

They do not really 'sing', making a single high pitched squeak repeated intermittently. They do 'sing' by day but are far more active in the evening and if you have young ears you can quite clearly hear them.

Crane Fly (Tipula paledosa)

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Crane Fly (Tipula paledosa)
Originally uploaded by Peter Orchard Here is another guest to the 'Ugly Bug Ball' (gosh, that dates me!). Yesterday, near Wareham, there were countless 'Daddy-long-legs' about on the common, they must have all hatched about the same time in one huge awakening. We also had a number in the garden and around the house, they seem attracted to light in the same way moths are.

Tipula paludosa is probably the most common crane fly, especially at this time of year. It has a close cousin, Tipula oleracae, which is more common in spring and early summer. The two species look the same but my book says oleracae has 13 segments in its antennae and paludosa 14. Try counting them without a microscope ...

The larvae of the two species are the crop damaging leatherjackets which are a favourite delicacy for Rooks and Jackdaws.

Hoverfly (Rhingia campestris)

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Hoverfly (Rhingia campestris)
Originally uploaded by Peter Orchard Continuing my interest in hoverflies I bring you Rhingia campestris. It is a common hoverfly and quite easy to identify because of its plump body which is orange and having a black stripe down it. It also has a longish ' snout' which you cannot really see in this photo.

This is a very common insect, flying from April to November and especially noticeable towards the end of the season as other species dwindle in numbers. You can find it along woodland rides and in hedgerows, its long snout making it particularly adapted to feeding on various flowers, here it is on a late thistle.

It is usually found near cows as its larvae breed in cow dung.

Parasitic fly (Tachina fera)

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Parasitic fly (Tachina fera)
Originally uploaded by Peter Orchard Some species of wildlife are exquisitely beautiful, some are down right ugly but all species are quite fascinating! Well, I think so anyway.

I think we will all agree that this is one ugly beast! It is an unpleasant character all round, not just in looks, but because it parasitises butterfly and moth larvae, usually one grub per host.

I took this on bramble near the reed beds along the River Frome at Swineham Point, near Wareham and my book says it is often abundant on waterside plants in late summer.

Common Field Grasshopper (Chorthippus brunneus)

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Common Field Grasshopper (Chorthippus brunneus)
Originally uploaded by Peter Orchard Having shunned grasshoppers as 'too difficult' for so many years when I got the chance to spend a day with one of Dorset's authorities on them I 'jumped' at the chance!

As always, it seems, the same process applies, get to know a couple of species well and then you will know when you have found something different. When you do find something difference get to know that well. Over time your knowledge grows.

So I have started with a couple of really abundant ones, one of which is the Common Field Grasshopper. This one is 'quite' easy as it predominantly dark brown with lighter markings on the abdomen. It also has those two light stripes on the shoulders (but so do other species!).

This species, although the 'Common Field', does like patches of clear ground and against bare earth the are quite well camouflaged. Once they 'fly' of course, and you follow them to where…

Small Tortoiseshell (Aglais urticae)

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Small Tortoiseshell (Aglais urticae)
Originally uploaded by Peter Orchard A Small Tortoiseshell in the garden yesterday caused me to to reflect that this was such a common butterfly, even five years ago. I can clearly remember not that long ago counting fifteen on Ice Plants in our garden at one go, all jostling for space and a chance to get at the nectar.

Numbers have plummeted at an incredibly fast rate since then but this year seems to have seen something of a recovery. I am sure I have seen many more than in the last couple of years and I look forward to seeing the Dorset Butterfly Conservation statistics from the transect walks to see if this proves the point.

The sudden decline is still something of a mystery and Oxford University Zoology department are investigating as to what the reason(s) might be. One theory is that it is linked to the arrival from the continent of a small parasitic fly, Sturmia bella, in the late 1990's. The fly lays its eggs on nettle leaves and the caterp…

Common Cross Spider (Araneus diadematus)

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Common Cross Spider (Araneus diadematus)
Originally uploaded by Peter Orchard This spider, with the white cross on its back is also known as the Garden Spider but it can be seen just about anywhere during the autumn.

There are countless numbers of these, usually seen huddled up in the centre of their amazingly fine webs waiting for their next meal to drop in.

By far our most abundant spider, you can find the Common Cross Spider in gardens, on scrub and shrubs, hedgerows, fences, even on cars (they use my wing mirror as a base point for web building).

A ferocious little creature to encounter if you are unsuspecting insect but quite harmless to anything bigger and on close inspection they are amazingly beautiful.

Autumnal Hawkbit (Leontodon autumnalis)

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Autumnal Hawkbit (Leontodon autumnalis)
Originally uploaded by Peter Orchard There are lots of flowers we call Dandelions and many, of course, are not! They may have yellow Dandelion flower heads and turn into Dandelion clocks but they are not Dandelions. The challenge is telling them apart.

I am not a botanist but by applying some basic principals identification of these tough species (thistles are another one) becomes a bit easier.

Firstly, some species are more common than others and this is a good starting point because you are, statistically, more likely to see a common species than a rare one. Then, time of year and habitat play a role.

This species, Autumnal Hawkbit is very common at this time of year and can be found in all sorts of habitat but it really loves a bit of rough ground or roadside verge. It is a tall plant, often three to four feet tall (so it can't be a Dandelion!). It also has stems that branch out with a single flower on each branch.

It is a scruffy, untidy flo…

Yellow Wagtail (Motacilla flavia)

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Yellow Wagtail (Motacilla flavia)
Originally uploaded by Peter Orchard September is nearly half over already and migration time is well and truly with us with all sorts of unexpected birds turning up along the Dorset coast.

Some migrants are, of course, more predictable and Yellow Wagtails are one of those species that always turn up here on their way south. They are usually in flocks, the two batches I have seen this year have both been around the same size of forty or so birds.

They like rough pasture and cows. The cows eat the grass and and drop cow pats, the dung flies come along to lay their eggs in the pats and the Yellow Wagtails make the most of a last meal before setting out across the channel by eating up the flies!

We see less of the Yellow Wagtails in spring when they are heading north, they have other things on their mind then and are fully focused on breeding. Going back in the sutumn it is about building up strength and body mass to help them through the journey having put …

Southern Hawker (Aeshna cyanea)

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Southern Hawker (Aeshna cyanea)
Originally uploaded by Peter Orchard Dragonflies are so exciting! The hawker family especially so as they are so colourful and quite large and imposing. They are also quite inquisitive and you just can't ignore one; in my view, you just have to look and marvel.

There are three 'common' hawkers in Dorset, the Southern, the Migrant and the Common. The sexes differ of each differ too so there are six subtle differences to get to know.

This species, seen frequently in our garden and often encountered elsewhere, is a female Southern Hawker, possibly the most widespread of the three down here. The give away are the two yellow patches on the first segment behind the head.

The Southern Hawker is a strong flier and can be encountered almost anywhere, in all sorts of weather, and any time from June through to October.

Crane Fly (Tipula maxima)

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Crane Fly (Tipula maxima)
Originally uploaded by Peter Orchard We will all be familiar, I am sure, with the Daddy-long-legs that is common in gardens and is attracted by the lights in houses. This is a close relative, its country cousin.

There are several species of crane fly and this one is the largest found in the United Kingdom, indeed, in western Europe. Rather than gardens it is mainly found in, or near, woodland and I photographed this one on heathland right alongside coniferous woods at Holton Lee, not far from Wareham.

I have never considered the Daddy-long-legs to be a beautiful creature but just look at the markings on those wings! It is also very well disguised as its perches on the heather to get warmth to enable it to fly. When it does fly it is something of a cumbersome effort and they do not go far in each flight and never gain much height.

Autumn Gentian (Gentianella amarella)

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Autumn Gentian (Gentianella amarella)
Originally uploaded by Peter Orchard As autumn comes upon the Dorset countryside many of the flowers are now over for another year but some late summer specialists linger.
It is usually in late August that the Autumn (or Nothern) Gentian comes in to flower for a fairly short season and already we are seeing the last of them for another year.

This is very much a flower of the chalk and limestone downs and cliffs, especially on the Purbeck Coast and although not a large flower it is certainly an attractive one.

It is also called Felwort from the ancient English feldwyrt meaning 'herb of the field'.

Hoverfly (Helophilus pendulus)

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Hoverfly (Helophilus pendulus)
Originally uploaded by Peter Orchard If you have a pond in your garden you will almost certainly find this smart hoverfly, Helophilus pendulus. It is one of the easier hoverflies to identify because it has yellow vertical stripes on its thorax, the only one that has this feature.

This is a common and very widespread species found all over the United Kingdom. Its larvae have been found in farmyard drains, very wet manure and very wet old sawdust (who on earth looks at these sorts of things?) and so is a very versatile and adaptable little creature.

Whilst having a passion for shallow ponds, puddles and ditches it can be found well away from water and as well as having a liking for flowers it can also be found sat on leaves basking in the sunshine (when we get some). In our garden pond they often sit on the water lily pads for long periods, occasionally strecthing their wings with a short flight and then returning to the same spot

Black Darter (Sympetrum danae)

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Black Darter (Sympetrum danae)
Originally uploaded by Peter Orchard The Black Darter is a dragonfly of the heath and moorland; it favours acidic boggy waters. Whether that be bog pools, ditches, or what ever does not seem to matter as long as Sphagnum mosses are present. With this as its main habitat it is not surprising that the Dorset heaths are a good place to find this particular insect.

Flying from July through until October they are about now but I have only ever seen females (as in the photograph) and never a male. The males are very black and have yellow marks and from illustrations I have seen they look really smart! That said, the female in her chocolate brown dress is pretty tasty too in my opinion, but then I like dragonflies!

Long Winged Conehead (Conocephalus discolor)

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Long Winged Conehead (Conocephalus discolor)
Originally uploaded by Peter Orchard A week or so ago I posted a photo of the Short-winged Conehead and then, yesterday, I happened across this Long-winged Conehead on a Dandelion on Wareham Common.

Whilst similar in size there are two main distinguiching features between the two. The first is, obviously, the wings which on this specimen go right back to the tail end. The Long-winged does not have such a dark brown stripe down its back either.

Long-winged Coneheads are quite common across southern England now but not always easy to find as they like long grass and scrub in which they can hide and from where they make their continuous and fairly loud stridulating sound (a bit like a distant knife grinder says my book!) so I was most fortunate to find this one out in the open.

Orb Spider (Araneus quadratus)

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Orb Spider (Araneus quadratus)
Originally uploaded by Peter Orchard Late summer is a good time to look for spiders and there are some real gems to be found. Even arachnaphobes would surely have to agree that some spiders a really beautiful and, of course, quite harmless (to human beings of course, not insects!).

This colourful specimen is the Orb-web Spider, a close relative of the common Garden Spider. Its striking colour looks like a large berry or fruit which must add to the deception that attracts the unwary fly or moth in to its wonderfully detailed, but lethal, web.

This spider is quite common on the Purbeck heaths as well as on rough pasture and scrub throughout the south of England.

Setaceous Hebrew Character (Xestia c-nigrum)

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Setaceous Hebrew Character (Xestia c-nigrum)
Originally uploaded by Peter Orchard This is a common moth in gardens in the southern half of Britain this time of year but you might need a moth trap to see it.

This species breeds here with some larvae surviving the winter and the first brood emerge in April and May but the numbers are topped up by inward migration from Europe. The eggs of the first brood start to emerge in August and second brood insects will occur right through until October when the colder night will then see them off.

It is easy to see where the 'Hebrew Character' comes from with the distinctive marking on the fore wing but 'setaceous' means having a bristle like appendage according to my dictionary. but I cannot see a bristle like appendage on this specimen!

There is a moth just called the Hebrew Character. Whilst similar, It is a little bit larger and tends to be around a little earlier in March and April.

Nettle Leaved Bellflower (Campanula trachelium)

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Nettle Leaved Bellflower (Campanula trachelium)
Originally uploaded by Peter Orchard This is a wild flower that would not be out of place in any garden. It is very popular with bees too.

The Nettle-leaved Bellflower is the most common of out native campanulas. Campanule is Latin for bell and when you see these lovely big bell shaped flowers it is not hard to see how they got their name.

This plant has a liking for woodlands and hedgerows on calcareous soils in southern (south of the Humber!) England. In Purbeck they can be found on the northern side of the Purbeck Ridge and are plentiful this time of year in the Creech area and especially at the entrance to the Dorset Wildlife Reserves of Kilwood and Stonehill Down.

Red Admiral (Vanessa atalanta)

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Red Admiral (Vanessa atalanta)
Originally uploaded by Peter Orchard The arrival in the garden yesterday of a perfect specimen of a Red Admiral, straight out of the chrysalis, reminded me just what striking butterflies they are. The markings are similar to the Painted Lady but the colours so much bolder and vivid.

I always look on the Red Admiral as a an 'English' butterfly but in fact they are quite migratory. They seem more hardy than the Painted Lady and some manage to successfully hibernate and we see them in early spring. By April and May we start to see an influx from the warmer south and by the late summer/early autumn we see the offspring of those early arrivals emerge.

Interestingly, there is some evidence to suggest that there is a southerly migration in autumn to warmer climes, just like some bird species.

Great Green Bush Cricket (Tettigonia viridissima)

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Great Green Bush Cricket (Tettigonia viridissima)
Originally uploaded by Peter Orchard Here is real little beast with a nasty bite if you get your hands too close! None the less, a beautiful creature that is by far our largest Bush-cricket at over 2" long.

They are quite common here in Dorset on scrub and bramble especially on the coastal cliffs and along the Purbeck Ridge. I have seen them in various places from Dursleton and Swyre Head to Corfe Castle and Creech Hill.

Although large insects their green colouring makes them difficult to spot but if you have good hearing then you will be able to pick up their 'loud' sewing machine like stridulation. At my age I can't hear them but I do have a bat detector to help me find grasshoppers and crickets. This one is quite deafening through the detector and you can pick them 50 yards away.

Spoonbill (Platalea leucorodia)

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Spoonbill (Platalea leucorodia)
Originally uploaded by Peter Orchard Will they, won't they, start to nest near Poole Harbour?

I am sure we are all aware of how the Little Egret has spread as a nesting species in this country in the last 20 or so years but the question now is, will its cousin, the Spoonbill, follow suit?

Spoonbills actually nest quite nearby in Holland and a pair have bred in Somerset recently so the prospects are good.

In Poole we have had wintering birds in recent years spending a lot of time on Brownsea Lagoon and at Middlebere Lake. In the summer, 2008, six young birds stayed all year and we hoped they would start to nest but in the spring they disappeared.

Now, already, there are at least eleven back in the harbour so who knows, may be next spring?

Painted Lady (Vanessa cardui)

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Painted Lady (Vanessa cardui)
Originally uploaded by Peter Orchard This time last year Painted Ladies were everywhere. At one point back in late May 2009 Butterfly Conservation were estimating over 2 million were coming in across the Channel every day! This year I have not seen one as yet!

The Painted Lady is an immigrant species, the eggs and larva that are laid in the Autumn by those that come to our shores each year cannot survive the British winter. Each year is different with some years hardly any coming and other years quite a lot and this is born out by the remarkable difference between last year's influx and this year 's dearth.

The Painted Lady is a close relative of the Red Admiral and the markings are incredibly similar; it is just the Painted Lady has delicate shades of orange and brown whereas the Red Admiral is, of course, boldly marked in red and black.

There is still time, of course, for them to put in an appearance this year but it looks unlikely. It is sad to thin…