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Showing posts from March, 2017

Rough hawkbit: the answer lies in the soil

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I think it is very easy to get dismissive, jump to a conclusion and move on when you see a flower. I know I do it, I try not to but I still do. With rough hawkbit (Leontodon hispidus) it is so easy to just dismiss it as a dandelion when, in reality, in the right environment it can be far more numerous than dandelions will be in their preferred environment. Rough hawkbit and dandelions are closely related, they are both of the Leontodon genera, sub-species of the daisy family. They both have that classic yellow dandelion flower which turns in to a fluffy 'clock'. They both have a basal rosette of leaves which are toothed (dandelion - dent de lion - lion's teeth). However, there are differences if you look. Rough hawkbit has a hairy stem, the dandelion smooth. Rough hawkbit has a green stem, the dandelion often tinged purple or brown. Rough hawkbit has a smaller and much tidier flower as dandelions tend to have untidy sepals that turn down under the flower. There are other sm…

Graphocehala fenndui: the rhododendron leafhopper

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The rhododendron leafhopper (Graphocehala fenndui) is described in my text book as having been introduced to Britain in the early 1900's from the United States. It does not expand on this statement so it is unclear whether it was an intentional or accidental introduction. One source on the internet says the first record was from Chobham in Surrey in 1934 so it appears that the bug found its own way here on imported rhododendrons for garden planting.  It is a large species for a leafhopper but still a pretty small insect being less than half an inch in length. It is primarily green with red streaks and in the United States it is known as the scarlet and green leafhopper; it is pretty much unmistakable. It lives exclusively on rhododendron from which it sucks sap from the plant. Often, several will be found together on one leaf. Although an alien species it is not considered invasive despite having done well here. As swathes of rhododendron are cleared from our countryside so the numb…

Marsh Ragwort: poisoned lies

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I am pretty sure most of us know ragwort when we see it; it is both common and infamous as supposedly being the cause of death of thousands of animals a year! I am, of course, being facetious but I do find some of the unjustified things said about our native flora and fauna rather irksome and feel an inbuilt need to come to their defence.  If you do know ragwort when you see it, can you tell the difference between common ragwort and marsh ragwort (Senecio aquaticus)? I ask this because in my days leading walks I found a general 'ragwort is ragwort' belief amongst those with me and when I pointed out marsh ragwort there was both surprise that there are different species of ragwort and that, although similar, they are different. Marsh ragwort is much shorter than common ragwort and more branched, common ragwort tends to be an upright plants whereas the branched marsh ragwort is somewhat more disparate. Whilst the individual flowers are similar they form a much looser cluster on m…

Pelvetia canaliculata: the channelled wrack

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Whilst bladder wrack is the best known of the wrack seaweeds the one most often seen is actually the channelled wrack (Pelvetia canaliculata). Growing freely near the high water line it is adapted to withstand long periods of exposure to the air without drying out. The weed that is out of the water the longest is usually blacker than the paler colour of that which is covered for longer. It does not have bladders for flotation as it rarely needs to float.  It may appear to have bladders at the ends of its fronds but the swellings are not full of air, they contain a jelly substance and are the fruiting body of the seaweed. Channelled wrack grows in large masses and can be seen on sea walls, quays and piers as well as the upper reaches of rocky shorelines but each plant only grows to about 18 inches long due to the amount of time it is our of water. It is common around British shores and Dorset is no exception to that. In Scotland it has been used as cattle fodder but I was surprised to r…

Common Figwort: skin deep

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Figworts are the prime members of the family scrophulariaceae which also includes toadflaxes, better known perhaps as snap-dragons! This relationship to snap-dragons gives a clue as the flowers you will find on figworts which bear a family resemblance. There are five figworts in my field guide but only two would you expect to encounter in Dorset, water figwort and the common figwort (Scrophularia nodosa). As you would expect from the name the water figwort occurs in damp places such as ditches, stream sides and damp meadows so if you find a figwort in woodlands, hedgerows and shady dry places then it is going to be common figwort, easy really. Far more common than water figwort, common figwort is a tall plant growing to at least a metre tall on a strong, square, hairless stem which branches at the top and each branch bears a small, brownish-purple flower. It has quite large, pointed leaves with a serrated edge. It flowers from May until August and in the autumn the rounded seed heads a…

Crepidula fornicata: slipper limpet

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I learn a lot by doing my nature notes and knowing virtually nothing about sea shells and the creatures that live in them this particular area has been an eye opener! This particular shell is one often found on Studland beach but I had no idea what it is (was?). As far as I can establish, based in the shelf that seems to cover the open section, this is the slipper limpet (Crepidula fornicata). It is an invasive species that came to our shores in the nineteenth century and has become abundant around the south, west and east coast of England. It is prolific and can form large reefs of shells, usually beyond the tidal zone and so are constantly under water. They grow in towers with the females at the bottom of the tower and the males at the top with those in between progressively becoming less female and more male as they go up the tower. It is a complex and strange process which, even having read about it, I cannot understand nor explain so if you are interest you will need to look it up…

Field Rose the trailing rose

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Given that the common dog-rose can often occur in white it would be wrong to say the the easiest way to identify the field rose (Rosa arvensis) is to look for a white wild rose! Quite often white roses in the countryside will be field rose and it is a good start but it is not enough on its own to be sure. When in flower the recognised botanical way of separating them is to look at the centre of the flower amongst the orange stamens and there is a column longer than the stamens (this is the style) then it is field rose. Less scientific methods can be used, however, as, whilst similar, they are not the same! The field rose tends to be a low, sprawling bush growing to little more than three feet tall as it has quite weak stems and this leads to its other common name, the trailing rose. The dog-rose, on the other hand, is a much stronger plant that produces long, prickly runners. At a closer level the leaves of field rose are  a dull green where are dog-rose is a much stronger dark green o…

Fucus spiralis: the spiral wrack

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No one who has been to the seaside can have failed to see well the known bladder wrack seaweed which is very common around the shores of Britain but there are actually five species of wrack seaweeds and, whilst bladder wrack is the most common, it is often the spiral wrack (Fucus spiralis) that one is more likely to see. Bladder wrack gets its name from the air filled bladders that form on its fronds and one might think that spiral wrack has bladders too at the ends of its fronds but it has not. What apppear to be bladders at the tips of the fronds are, in fact, the fruiting bodies which are full of a jelly-like substance not air.  Each of the wracks has a tendency to grow in different habitats, some grow in the upper tidal reaches and so are dry for much of the time, others like the lower levels and to be covered in water most of the time and the bladder wrack grows midway between the two and needs the air bladders for flotation being under water for much of the time. Sprial wrack, how…

Common Centaury: man nor beast

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One of the flowers you have to be able to recognise if you are in Dorset and have an interest in such things is the common centaury (Centaurium erythraea). It is frequently encountered both on calcareous soils and on acid too. You can find it on the grassy downs at places like Durlston and you can encounter it on the heaths, often by paths where the soil is sell worn and the vegetation is thin; it seems to like sandy, dry soils. An attractive plant, it recalls gentian when you see it at first and it is indeed a member of a sub-order of the gentian family. The flowers are pure pink (occasionally white)and grow in small clusters of three or so at the top of each branch of the stem. Generally not growing very tall it can actually be only a couple of inches tall but is usually between six to ten inches, rarely bigger. The small leaves are in pairs at the junction of each stem branch.  There are six centaury species in my guide but two perennial do not occur in Dorset and another is yellow! …

Buccinum undatum: the common whelk

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The spiral shell of the common whelk (Buccinum undatum) is probably familiar to most of us as it can be found washed up on beaches and rocky shore lines anywhere around the British coastline. It is an important commercial species being a popular shell fish food but populations have declined dramatically since the 1970's and this is believed to be entirely due to over harvesting. The whelk is also well known for its egg cases which can also be found on beaches; they look like polystyrene packaging!  Many of will have seen this on the strand line of beaches but perhaps not realised that it is a natural substance and not man-made.The whelk lays eggs in masses of these cells during the winter but many perish. The empty cases found on our beaches are called wash balls. Not only is the whelk captured for food but it also because it produces a purple dye which has been used to dye material.   Buccinum undatum: the common whelk